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【高锐特译】投资者如何找到好的出租物业

作者:高锐地产来源: 发布时间:2017-10-13

The decision to become a landlord is certainly exciting – the search for a property, marketing for a tenant and potential to bring in money every month.

成为房东的确是一件很令人兴奋的事—寻找物业、为业主推销、每月都带来收益。

But before you go buying the first empty house you see – or worse, a house you didn’t even look at – know that your investment is better made when you’ve carefully run the numbers.

但当你决定要投资首套房产,或者甚至都没有去看过的房子时,最好认真做好投资规划。

Even when you’re just renting out a single-family home or duplex, real estate investment isn’t as easy as it may seem. A smart investment requires a look at market rents, a calculation of income potential and consideration of additional costs to both prepare a property to rent and make long-term repairs.

房地产投资不会像你想的那样简单,即便只是出租独立屋或双层公寓。一个聪明的房地产投资者会敏锐观察房地产租赁市场,计算其潜在收入,并考虑到房屋出租及长期维修产生的额外花费。

That’s not to mention factoring in costs you would have to absorb if the property sat vacant for any period of time. Bryan M. Chavis, a property management consultant and author of “The Landlord Entrepreneur: Double Your Profits With Real Estate Property Management,” says the potential for failure is often overlooked by excited rookie investors.

更不要提房屋如果空置一段时间,还要承担的各种费用。布莱恩·查韦斯(Bryan M. Chavis)是一名物业管理顾问,也是《房东企业家:通过物业管理实现利润倍增》这本书的作者。他说房地产投资新手往往会忽略破产的可能。

“A lot of people get anxious to participate in a deal, so they’ ll take on more risk than what is necessary or they’ll jump into a deal just because it’s listed or they feel it’s a good deal … and they’ll rush into an investment that doesn’t make sense,” Chavis says. “And that’s are where the mistakes are made.”

查韦斯说,“大部分人开始房地产交易时会产生焦虑情绪,因而他们将承担更多不必要的风险。一旦房屋上市或自认为是一项好的交易,他们会马上进行交易而这就是失误所在。”

Every investment property requires a careful assessment of the value of the property, amount of debt you’ll take on, expected income and other operating costs. Those property-specific numbers are also dependent on the local rental industry. Here are four things to consider as you look for the right rental property.

任何房产投资都需要对房屋价值、贷款总额、预计收入以及营业成本作出仔细评估。而这些评估数据取决于当地租赁市场。选择正确的租赁房产,您需要考虑以下四步。

Find the market and submarket. A property in your neighborhood may seem like the most convenient investment option, but that doesn’t mean it’ll be worth your time and money. You first need to identify the best market for your investment, plus the submarkets – often broken down into neighborhoods – where a rental property will be most fruitful.

发现市场和子市场。社区内的房产可能是最便捷的投资选择,但并不意味着值得你为之投入时间和金钱。首先,你需要找到最适合房产投资的市场以及子市场,通常在社区房产投资形势最为可观。

If you’re planning to manage the property yourself, your local market makes the most sense. Now, narrow down submarkets based on where renters are more likely to search – for example, near public transportation or within easy access to highways. Regardless of the tools you use to find and purchase available properties, a more general search on a site like Zillow, Apartments.com or Rentpad could show you where rental properties are most common and at various price ranges.

如果你计划自行管理物业,可利用当地市场。缩小子市场范围,了解租户们经常经常租的区域位置,如临近公共交通或通往高速公路的地方。通常在Zillow,Apartments.com或Rentpad网站上搜索,可以找到最普遍、不同价格范围的租赁房产。

“The process begins with evaluating a targeted area,” Chavis says.

查韦斯说,“这一过程开始于评估目标区域。”

An ultra-luxury neighborhood nestled far from downtown might leave you hard-pressed to find renters, but on a street where new renters are always moving in you might have found a submarket to focus on.

一个顶级豪华的社区往往远离繁华的市中心,这对于寻找租户来说有些困难。但是在一个不断有新租户搬来的街区可以发现一个投资次市场。

Off-campus student housing is an easy-to-identify type of rental property that excites investors. Woody R. Fincham, vice president and Virginia regional manager of appraisal company The Trice Group, resides in Charlottesville, Virginia, home of the University of Virginia, and says investors tend to keep much of their attention on properties within walking distance to campus because the increased demand allows for a higher rent.

校外学生住宿是房地产租赁市场上的一个普遍类型,投资者们为此兴奋。伍迪·芬彻姆(Woody R. Fincham)—房地产股价公司The Trice Group副总裁兼弗吉尼亚州区域经理,居住在弗吉尼亚州夏洛茨维尔弗吉尼亚大学附近。他说投资者们常着眼于距离大学在几步范围内的房产,这里需求大因而租金高。

“If they’re within walking distance of [University of Virginia grounds], that generally is a premium, so investors are generally looking for that,” Fincham says.

芬彻姆说,“距离(弗吉尼亚大学)近的房子价格普遍偏高,而这正是投资者们希望看到的。”

Weigh property class options. As you identify the submarket that will yield the most demand among renters, also consider the quality of the property you’d like to own based on what you can afford and what renters flock to.

衡量物业类别选项。当你在寻找租户多的房地产子市场时,也要考虑到优质物业,这基于你的经济实力以及租户云集的原因。

Property classes are typically broken into three categories: A, B and C. Properties in Class A will be the top quality in that market, typically new and higher priced. Class B properties tend to be a bit older but well-maintained. Class C properties are older still, often in need of renovations and repairs and located outside the prime real estate locations.

物业类别一般分为三类:A级, B级和C级。A级房产质量最好,一般是新房,价格偏高。B级房产稍旧但维修良好。C级房产偏旧,需要维修,远离优质房产区。

Age, architectural style and renovation specifics can vary based on location. A Class A building in New York City isn’t going to compare with a Class A building in Huntsville, Alabama, simply because they attract two different types of residents.

房龄、建筑风格以及装修细节因房屋地理位置不同而不同。例如,位于纽约市的一套A级房屋不能与位于亚拉巴马州亨茨维尔市的一套A级房产相比较,仅仅因为其生活着两种不同类型的居民。

“Typically investors are looking to buy low, and they’re usually looking to buy stuff that’s not in the best condition,” Fincham says.

芬彻姆说,“一般来说,投资者们着眼于价格低的房屋,他们一般会购买那些相对条件不太好的房屋”。

For that reason, Chavis says, you’re also less likely to feel the negative effects when real estate trends shift. If you rent only to the super-wealthy, they have the flexibility to choose to buy a home fairly easily, which shrinks the demand for luxury rentals, compared to other renters, who rent for longer since they have to save up to become homeowners.

查韦斯说,因此在房地产走势发生变化时,不会受到消极影响。如果你仅租给富人,比起其他要攒钱买房的租户,他们能灵活选择购买房子,这降低了豪华租赁公寓的需求。

“I see a lot of risk and a lot of volatility in those [Class A] sectors – more so than do the B, C, middle-class demographic assets. I feel those are a tad bit more stable,” he says.

他说,“对于A级房产,我看到了很多风险和不确定性。更多的人选择了B级、C级、中等房产。”

Know the most likely renter. Closely paired with the property class to buy is the renter most likely to be interested in becoming your tenant.

了解潜在租户。为租户推荐合适的房屋,使之成为你的租客。

For off-campus student housing, for example, landlords often don’t have to be as concerned with providing new appliances or newly painted walls as they would with a family recently relocated by a major corporation.

对于校外住宿学生来说,房东不必关心更换新家电或粉饰墙壁,因为他们会选择寄宿家庭。

“Students are not as persnickety, per se, as the average consumer,” Fincham says.

芬彻姆说,“学生作为普遍租户,就其本身而言并不挑剔”。

When it comes to identifying the most likely renter, it helps to be familiar with the area. Arik Kislin, a real estate investor and developer and CEO of Linx Industries, says it’s important to have a solid grasp on the typical renter in a neighborhood, or at least work with someone who does. Not knowing the regional and ethnic makeup of a neighborhood like Jamaica, Queens, in New York, he says, could mean that people simply don’t want to do business with you because you're viewed as an outsider.

识别潜在租户,熟悉地理位置会有很大帮助。阿里克·克斯里(Arik Kislin)—房地产投资者兼开发商兼Linx Industries首席执行官称,一个社区有稳定的租户是非常重要的。他说,如果不了解位于美国纽约市皇后区牙买加的一个社区区域和种族构成,也就意味着租户并不想和你做生意因为他们把你视作局外者。

Plan for the worst-case scenario. Whether it’s a recession that hits or even an increase in homeownership rates, there’s a possibility you’ll have to lower rents at some point to attract renters. If the city or neighborhood you live in undergoes serious changes, your rental property may even sit vacant for months.

做好最坏的打算。无论是经济衰退的影响还是购房率的增加,你可能会不得不降低租金来吸引租户。如果你居住的城市或社区经历严肃的变化,那么你的租赁房产可能在几个月会处于空置状态。

It’s important to know how long you’d be able to afford fronting the costs of a vacant rental space or how low you could make rental rates before you’re no longer profiting.

了解你所能承担的房屋空置费或在房屋不再盈利前的出租率到底有多低。

Even with the current rental climate in most markets, with high demand and rents outpacing affordability in places like San Francisco and New York, Chavis says landlords shouldn’t expect rents to continue to climb at the rate they have in recent years. Median rent for a one-bedroom apartment in San Francisco currently stands at $3,390, according to rental information company Zumper. While it's a high rent to be sure, it hasn't changed much going back to the same month in 2015, when the median rent reached $3,530, a new high after increasing more than 13.9 percent from the year before, per Zumper's monthly national rent reports. With affordability being a significant problem in the Bay Area, landlords shouldn't expect to see major increases in rent going forward, and they can even expect more dips.

即使在大多数房地产市场上,就当前出租情况而言,在一些地方如旧金山和纽约,这里房屋需求量高、租金超过了可负担能力。查韦斯说房东们并不希望租金继续以现有速度攀升。根据房屋租赁公司Zumper数据显示,目前旧金山一居室公寓租金中值是3390美元。虽然租金较高,但直至2015年同期房价并没有回落。根据美国租房及市场研究网站Zumper每年发表的租房报告显示,2015年租金中值为3530美元,同比一年前增长了13.9%,达到新高。旧金山湾区房价可购房性成为一个重要的问题,房东们并不希望看到房价上涨,甚至希望房价下降。

“These high, ridiculous rents are going to eventually reach a ceiling … which could cause some problems and issues,” Chavis says.

查韦斯说,“高租金值最终会达到峰值 … 而这会造成一些问题”。

As you weigh the potential profitability of a rental property, include the possible scenarios of a plateau in rental rates, decline in demand and the occasional big-ticket repair that could take money out of the bank rather than putting money in. They’re not the numbers you want to think about when you picture yourself as a landlord, but they’re the numbers that can keep you from taking on a bad investment.

当你衡量租赁房产的潜在收益时,包含出租率达到峰值,房屋需求量下降以及偶然性的大额维修费,这些都会产生费用。尽管这些数字和你想象自己作为房东时的预期大相径庭,却避免了一场糟糕的投资。

 

 

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